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Ius Doni, Ius Soli, Ius Sanguinis: What is the difference?

Our concept of citizenship is evolving. Modern thinking dictates that one should no longer be geographically constrained by bloodline or place of birth. Nowadays there are 3 primary forms by which one may be granted citizenship of a particular country: Ius Soli (citizenship by birth), Ius Sanguinis (citizenship by bloodline), or Ius Doni (citizenship by investment). This article will explore each in more detail.


Ius Sanguinis

The most common out of these 3 is undoubtedly Ius Sanguinis, or citizenship by bloodline in English. This form grants citizenship right based on ones parents being nationals of a particular state/country. This enables you to claim citizenship of a particular country based on the nationality of your parents. In addition to being the most common form of citizenship , it is also the simpliest.


Ius Soli

Ius Soli, or citizenship by birth is another form of citizenship acquisition whereby one is granted citizenship based on their country of birth. While one may image this to be a fairly common form of citizenship, there is no European country that will grant citizenship on this basis alone. There are certain factors that must be met for Ius Soli to become an individual’s sole option for being granted citizenship, such as parents being from a specific country as well as various naturalisation requirements eg knowledge of local language etc.


Ius Doni

Lastly, there is Ius Doni, or citizenship by investment. This is a process whereby individuals can become citizens of a particular state by meeting certain specific requirements, usually making an approved investment into the economy, donation and meeting certain residency requirements.


The first official citizenship by investment programme was launched in 1984 by St. Kitts and Nevis, with many countries including Cyprus and Malta initiating one since. Although officially recognised CBI programmes only exists for the last 30 or so years the concept of CBI extends much longer to the Roman Empire, whereby neighbouring and conquered people were offered citizenship in exchange for money in order to strengthen the empire.


Our modern day concept of the nation state has only been around since roughly the 15th century when intellectual discoveries in political economy, capitalism, mercantilism, political geography, and geography combined together with cartography and advances in map-making technologies. It was with these intellectual discoveries and technological advances that the nation state arose – and this concept has stuck ever since.


Nowadays however, it may be time to rethink this out-dated concept of citizenship. Globalisation has brought countries closer than ever, with more than 250 million people currently residing in a country other than their country of birth. The concept of global citizenship has emerged from this, and the increase in both the number and popularity of investment migration programmes is evidence of our evolving understanding of the concept of citizenship. As countries seek diverse forms of economic growth and individuals seek greater personal freedom and security, one would expect to see more countries open up such programmes to ensure that they are not left out in the cold.


Moreover, the reciprocal nature of such programmes will likely ensure the continued growth of the CBI industry into the future as an increasing number of HNWIs look to safeguard their and their families assets and safety, while countries explore new and innovative ways to grow their economies.


© Kylin Prime Group 2019